Atmospheric Energy to Power Civilization

     At first, the idea seems quite difficult, but through careful analysis readers can see that all principles and energy budgets are about right. The book Pluvinergy illustrates a complete, and feasible design. 

    Readers will see that Pluvinergy may not work exactly as envisioned now, but they can see that energy accumulating in the atmosphere and the oceans is a big problem which can be turned into an equally big solution. Excess energy accumulating in the oceans and atmosphere is climate change, converting it into a resource is Pluvinergy. Evaporating water in the atmospheric absorbs excess heat energy. Some readers will be able to follow the logic of the architecture showing how we can copy nature to concentrate that energy for our uses, while producing water, and food, others will have to wait for scientists and journalists to explain it better. The book lays out  the simple physical principles, and architectural arrangement. The concept and the design are accessible to the erudite public, with the underlying scientifically valid theory fully discussed.  

Pluvicopia is a stripped down version of the concept which relies on humidity already in the atmosphere. Pluvinergy is a very simple tool to release that energy, with minimal control, just enough to control flooding and excess erosion. The idea is really only a method to reduce construction cost by an order of magnitude, from about $150 per m2 to about $10. If that is achieved, there is nothing in the concept that can not be proven with the simplest scientific understanding, even the most primitive understanding of physics is sufficient. 

Underlying Physical Principles of Pluvinergy:

1. Warm Air rises. 
2. Humid Air is lighter than dry air, thus warm humid air rises faster than warm dry air. 
3. Temperature decreases with elevation because of reduced air pressure. 
4. Water vapor in rising humid air condenses. 
5. Adding drop seeds to the airmass will accelerate condensation, even below the point of saturation.
6. Condensed water will fall out of suspension as droplets grow: Rain and hail.  
7. Droplets which fall through dry air will re-evaporate. 
8. When water evaporates, it absorbs heat from the surrounding dry air, making it colder. 
9. Cold air is heavier than warmer air, making it fall. If water droplets accompany the falling air, more water will evaporate, continually accelerating the downdraft, and the evaporation rate as long as water is available.
10. Wind will flow from high pressure zones to low pressure zones. 
11. Fluids in motion have lower pressure than fluids at rest. (The Bernoulli Principle)
12. Per 9 and 10, and if 1 is occurring nearby, downdrafts will flow to the area of zone 1 and 2.  
13. A rotating rising flow will accelerate rotation with the rising process. ("stretching" in tornadogenesis theory)
14. A rising plume will move windward relative to a fixed point on the ground.  
15. If the base of a rising plume is fixed any wind will cause the rising plume to lean.
16. If the surrounding air is dry, condensation will fall through dry air, creating high speed downdrafts.
17. If the downdrafts are faster than the surrounding wind they will entrain the ambient wind, and recycle it back into the entraining wind system.
18. In a vertical vortex, wind reaches its highest speed at the base. (basic vertical vortex theory)
19. Wind energy content increases with third power of velocity. (V*V*V).
20. Cost of harnessing wind decreases with the third power of velocity. (See figure 7.8 below)
21. Constant wind reduces the cost of turbines, by several orders of magnitude. (example: the generator is only 4% the cost of a conventional wind turbine.)
22. Continuous wind reduces cost by 75% from wind that is available only 25% of the time. 
23. The earth receives 174,000 TW of solar energy every second. The atmosphere temporarily retains 40% of the flow, making atmospheric energy 40% larger than solar energy. Most of it is available to harness using humidity. 
24. Civilization currently uses less than 20 TW, a substantial part of which is waste. Thus, civilization will never outgrow atmospheric energy. 
25. Water evaporation decreases with salinity. 
26. Salt does not evaporate at the temperature in which water evaporates.  

Pluvinergy is a system of wind structures based on these principles. Pluvicopia is the most striped down version of the concept. 

The Broader View
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    The weather is a major component of  the earth’s temperature regulation. The earth must shed 174,000 terawatts of power into space every second. The weather and ocean currents distribute heat throughout the planet, using the atmosphere as conduit.  

     Similarly, Pluvinergy translates solar and atmospheric heat energy into space with the major natural mechanism of the weather: humidity. Pluvinergy can easily harness the 15 to 150 terawatts that civilization uses for any level of economic development. 

Unlike small-scale older concepts of alternative energy, Pluvinergy is an architectural design of winds to form and to economically concentrate energy into potential energy at the scale of civilization's growing needs.  

Invoking the Nature of  Water

     The nature of the water molecule gives it some extreme characteristics. It is capable of absorbing and, importantly, storing 2500 joules of energy by evaporating a single gram of water. One ton of evaporated water will then hold 2.5 Giga-joules of energy. Absorbing or releasing this energy is what causes downdrafts and updrafts, and it is a major motivator of winds in general. This is the process of everyday weather.  Meteorologists don't duel on this, but it is the clash of precipitation against dry air that creates the most powerful winds. The December, 2014 issue of BAMS dispels the popular myth that the clash of warm air against dry air, carelessly offered in weather reports, is incorrect,  it is dry air that is the key. 

     Pluvinergy uses the water molecule with the same purpose, of life enrichment through water for plant growth. It is a tool to direct energy concentration for civilization by building an engine using downdraft and updraft structures, made possible by the nature of the water molecule, and dry contrast possible in desert air. 

The Core of  the Design

     The most expensive part of the process only creates the smallest seed flow, the starter system. Once this seed flow is created, the rest of the engine repeats the process to take ever larger wind flows into its management. Nature does this too, Pluvinergy just times wind flow and volume to attain desired wind behavior, to attain higher efficiency.  

    The seed flow, manages a larger intermediate flow, which in turn gathers flows at the full scale of the atmosphere. This engine can be a very small part of the atmosphere. But as small as it is, it requires manipulation of huge amounts of water evaporation and condensation. This is all to our advantage since it increases water production, which is also growing need for life and for civilization.  

Controlling Climate

     Although the direct temperature control of the atmosphere from a large powerplant is 243,000 times smaller than the atmosphere's energy flow, it is still an effective tool to affect climate. The most important reason is that it displaces fossil fuels, but it has other benefits. The book details those many advantages and mechanics.

     As you might gather from the video, Pluvinergy is a rapid atmospheric mixing mechanism. High-level air is accelerated downward, and lower level air is accelerated upward. This mixing brings down carbon dioxide which can be absorbed into its new forestation and food production. When hundreds of plants completely replace fossil fuels and nuclear power, Pluvinergy becomes an effective climate control tool.   

Accepting Responsibility

    Currently civilization is acting irresponsibly in climate management; we are changing climate rapidly without a plan. This is because we are stuck in our old energy regimes, and we lack the tools to affect the climate. In addition, we also lack mechanisms for validating discourse. 

    Because Pluvinergy mechanics can cool or warm the planet, we must operate the energy system rationally. This is why ascending validated discourse is a critical component of the design. 

   The final benefit of Pluvinergy development may be the most valuable tool for civilization. The concept of ASCEND must be developed concurrently with Pluvinergy advancement, as the book explains. 
Pluvinergy
Development
How It Works
BAE Earth
Networking

Pluvinergy is a Natural Solution
Figure 7.2 Potential vs. Measured Temperatures
Figure 3.1  Earth's Energy Budget
Figure 5.2   Conical PELFC and Conventional LFC
Figure 6.3     Hurricane Ike ENCAR Image
Figure 7.3     Natural Storm and Pluvinergy Downdraft Flows
Figure 7.4     Entrainment of Upper Level Winds by Downdrafts 
Figure 7.6    Analysis of a 1% Prototype
Figure 7.8     turbogenerator Comparison 
Figure 7.9    Turbogenerator Cost Comparison 
Figure 8.3     Earthen Ditch Heat Exchange
Figure 8.4     Natural Greenhouse Air Layer Stratification 
Figure 8.5     Plume Path Content and Environments 
Figure 8.7     2D Storm Characteristics Locations 
PDF of Book Images
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Below are clarifications of some illustrations from the book. 
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